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Canada Meetings on Vascular and Interventional Radiology, will be organized around the theme “An Insight into Innovative Approaches in Vascular and Interventional Radiology”
Interventional Radiology 2019 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Interventional Radiology 2019
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Interventional radiology is a medical specialty to fame in which its trained physicians perform minimally invasive procedures to analyze and treat different diseases. Interventional radiologists are prepared to utilize image-guided technology, for example, X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to put a catheter inside the body and treat patients non- surgically. As a choice to open surgery, interventional radiology strategies may decrease risk, pain and recovery time for patients.
Interventional oncology is a type of cancer care performed by specially trained radiologists called interventional radiologists. They use advanced imaged-guided techniques such as CT, fluoroscopy (live X-ray) or ultrasound to deliver treatment through a small skin puncture.
Interventional oncology targets cancer and/or the pain it causes. These procedures are often used with standard cancer treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiation and may reduce pain and/or extend life. For certain types of tumors, interventional oncology procedures can be curative.
Diagnostic imaging, also called medical imaging, the use of electromagnetic radiation and certain other technologies to produce images of internal structures of the body for the purpose of accurate diagnosis. Diagnostic imaging is roughly equivalent to radiology, the branch of medicine that uses radiation to diagnose and treat diseases. However, other technologies including ultrasound, which employs sound waves to visualize tissues, and endoscopy and similar methods in which a flexible optical instrument is equipped with a camera for imaging may also be used.
Interventions for Cardiac and vascular system are catheter-based procedures often used to open blocked blood vessels in people with heart and peripheral vascular diseases. Vascular intervention is a minimally invasive procedure used to treat peripheral artery disease, which causes plaque buildup in the arteries leading to the intestines, head, arms and most commonly the legs.
Interventional neuroradiology is a subspecialty of interventional radiology which involves using medical imaging tests in diagnosing and treating diseases of the central nervous system, head, neck and spine. Interventional neuroradiologists use cutting edge imaging and guidance techniques to guide catheters (very fine plastic tubes) and other tiny instruments around the arteries and veins in the head, neck or spine to treat conditions such as strokes or aneurysms.
Interventional neuroradiology is used to treat:
Head, neck and spinal tumors through embolization and some of the more common conditions which are treated by neurointerventoinal techniques include cerebral (Brain) aneurysms, brain arteriovenous malformations, and brain dural fistulas.
Pediatric interventional radiology (IR) is a medical field that specializes in minimally invasive diagnostic or therapeutic procedures using imaging guidance, in children. Interventional radiology suites for minimally invasive studies such as catheter-based angiography and fluoroscopy. IR can also use other imaging guidance such as ultrasound, CT and MRI to precisely deliver medication to an area of the body or to perform minimally invasive procedures rather than surgery. These types of procedures can reduce complications, reduce the risk of infection, require a shorter hospital stay and result in faster recuperation.
A few examples of pediatric interventional procedures include:
Guiding instruments into the tissue to take a sample in order to diagnose infection or tumor (biopsy or aspiration)
Placing a tube into a blood vessel, organ or fluid collection to remove or replace fluids (venous access, -ostomy tube or drainage)
Guiding small instruments into the body to directly deliver materials (such as medications, radiofrequency energy or laser) to destroy cancer or other abnormal tissues without harming the healthy tissues, by treating at the source of the disease (chemoembolization, sclerotherapy or ablation).
Interventional musculoskeletal procedures are becoming increasingly popular in both the academic setting and private practice setting. There are two main types of musculoskeletal interventions: those that are minimally invasive and the more advanced procedures. The procedures included in the minimally invasive list include MR and CT arthrography, ultrasound-guided injections or softtissue biopsies, and spine pain injections. Typical advanced musculoskeletal interventions include bone biopsies, vertebroplasty, and tumor ablation.
Interventional radiology is a safe, less invasive therapy with less recovery time compared with open surgery. Gastroenterology is a specialty that is linked to interventional radiology.
Procedures performed by interventional radiology for gastrointestinal-related malignancies. The cases include portal vein recanalization, biliary drain placement, and stenting in the setting of obstructive malignancy as well as celiac plexus cryoablation/block for chronic pain relief (i.e., pancreatic cancer). Also, percutaneous decompression gastrostomy tube (PDGT) placement for patients with malignant bowel obstruction and pleural/abdominal drainage catheters for malignant effusions. Furthermore ablations, chemo and radio-embolization, and bland embolization of hepatic tumors. Procedures such as kyphoplasty, vertebroplasty, and ablation of osseous metastasis for pain relief.
Genitourinary interventions are used to treat urinary tract problems that block the flow of urine from the kidneys and bladder. They may be used to:
Interventional radiologists offer several image-guided, minimally invasive treatment options to relieve urinary problems. The treatments often take advantage of special imaging technologies such as ultrasound as well as fluoroscopy, which uses X-rays to create real-time, moving images of structures inside the body. Treatment options include: Ureteral Stenting, nephrostomy, suprapubic catheterization, dilation of narrowed or blocked urinary tract, Ablation or obliteration of cysts, lymphoceles, fallopian tube recanalization for infertility.
Hepatobiliary problems benefit from interventional radiology (IR) techniques. First-line modern imaging modalities, such as duplex ultrasonography, 3 and 4 phasic CT scan, and high-resolution MRI, have revolutionized the diagnosis and management of hepatobiliary diseases. Pioneers in this field have performed IR procedures, such as transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB), biliary stent, and embolotherapy, for the hepatobiliary system.
Interventional pulmonology is a relatively new field in pulmonary medicine. Interventional pulmonology uses endoscopy and other tools to diagnose and treat conditions in the lungs and chest. Cardiothoracic and other surgeons also routinely perform interventional pulmonology procedures which include bronchoscopy, bronchoalveolar lavage, biopsy of lung or lymph node, bronchial stent, balloon bronchoplasty, pleuroscopy, thoracentesis, pleurodesis, indwelling pleural catheter, bronchoscopic thermoplasty.
Interventional radiology producers also help to manage the pain, particularly for patients experiencing certain types of spine and neck pain.
Kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty are minimally invasive procedures used to relieve the pain from a vertebral fracture, especially if it does not improve after several weeks of pain medication and treatment with a brace. Both vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty procedures involve placing cement into the fractured vertebra through small incisions in the skin under x-ray guidance.
There are many different classes of medications used by the interventional radiologist which have an effect on and are useful during the pre-, peri-, intra-, and post-procedural settings. It is important to be aware of the medications likely to be used by the interventional radiologist, medications a patient may be taking prior to the procedure and possible interactions with the procedure. In the pre-procedural setting, important classes of medications to be aware of include anticoagulants, prophylactic antibiotics, and contrast media. In the intra-procedural setting, vasoactive substances, gastric motility agents, sedative agents, analgesics, and local anesthetic agents are important. There are several classes of medications that may be used in the post-procedural setting including analgesic agents, antimicrobial agents, antiemetic agents, and anticoagulants.
Nuclear medicine is a subspecialty of radiology which involves the use of radioactive medication (radiopharmaceuticals) to diagnose and treat disease. These radioactive materials are usually injected into a vein. A gamma camera tracks the movement of the radiopharmaceuticals from outside the body by detecting the gamma radiation emitted by the medication. Depending on the type of test, two or three dimensional images of the internal body can be created.
Radiopharmaceuticals can be used to treat hyperthyroidism, thyroid cancer, solid tumours and bone metastases.
The application of ionizing radiation in medicine seems to be a safe procedure for patients as well as for occupational exposition to personnel. The developments in interventional radiology with fluoroscopy and dose-intensive interventions require intensified radiation protection. It is recommended that all available tools should be used for this purpose. Besides the options for instruments, x‑ray protection at the intervention table must be intensively practiced with lead aprons and mounted lead glass. A special focus on eye protection to prevent cataracts is also recommended.
Embolization may often be used to treat internal bleeding and help prevent heavy bleeding during surgery. In some cases, embolization may be a treatment option for difficult-to-reach, inoperable tumors. It may also be used to treat tumors that are too large to be ablated.
Embolization may be used to treat: Liver cancer, Metastatic cancer in the liver, Kidney cancer, Neuroendocrine tumors, Uterine fibroids, Aneurysms. Examples of embolization procedures for liver cancer or other cancers that spread to the liver include chemoembolization and radioembolization therapies (e.g., SIR-Spheres, TheraSphere).
Interventional Radiology nurses are responsible for assessment and care of patients undergoing invasive procedures or receiving sedation in the Department of Radiology. IR nurses work collaboratively with all members of the interdisciplinary IR team and offer innovative diagnostic tests and life-saving treatments for a diverse patient population.